The Rolling Stones of West Africa

Disclaimer: I don’t care where or how you get your music. But please keep listening.

As much as I don’t like the term world music (David Byrne explains it here better than I ever could), I’ve been steadily listening to more and more non-Western music over the past decade. I think this is a natural progression of going down the musical rabbit hole- as you keep exploring what musicians you listen to listen to themselves, you generally end up somewhere in the 30s, or halfway across the world. Perhaps one of my happiest musical discoveries has been (T.P.) Orchestre Poly-Rythmo (de Cotonou (Benin)). Yes, they do really go by all those variations, and sometimes even by the names of their individual band members.

Orchestre Poly-Rythmo de Cotonou (fuck it, OPRC), have been around since the early 60s and continue to play- hence the title of the post. In as much as they are named at all, they are aptly named. Their name is a sort of pun- not only does it reflect their use of poly-rhythms common to all music of West Africa, but also their eclectic grab-bag of musical styles. While focusing broadly on funk, their musical style covers Afrobeat, psychedelic rock, salsa, jazz, soukous and others, all filled out with their self-designated voodoo rhythms.

OPRC are gods among men in West Africa, but they never made it to the level of cult popularity that Fela Kuti or even King Sunny Ade enjoyed outside West Africa. This could be chalked up to a couple of things: firstly, their original releases were so erratically named, released and pressed that it was tough to figure out whose albums they were or where to get them, let alone if they were any good. Fortunately, Analog Africa has put out a series of re-release compilations of their best material on four stellar albums in the past few years. Secondly- and this is one of their strengths- they were very much a group effort, and no single member commanded the audience’s attention in the same way that Fela’s gloriously hammy persona might. Thirdly, the closest they ever came to singing in English was singing in French, and that was rare- their music was most often in the Gen language. These last two points, I think, just help you to focus on the music, which is what matters most.

And the music really does command focus. This is not to say they’re showy- in fact, apart from singer Vincent Ahehehinnou’s occasional yelps, they show a collectivist tendency toward restraint that bring to mind the early 80s post-punk “just because we can doesn’t mean we should” philosophy more than anything. The vocals, while skillful, never overpower the arrangements. The horns provide a jaunty accent, but only show up when they have to. The restraint is a function of the music always being grounded by the stellar drumming of Léopold Yehouessi- seemingly a follower of Liebezeit’s axiom and the rest of the rhythm section. As should be the case for a West African band named Poly-Rythmo, the rhythms are the real star. And this really sets OPRC apart from almost every band I’ve ever heard- lest we forget, without African rhythms, we’d all still be listening to Greensleeves and fife-and-drum.

Minsato le, mi Dahomey: OPRC at the peak of their psychedelic period. I’m surprised this beat hasn’t been sampled on a breakdancing mix somewhere.
Ou c’est lui ou c’est moi: A cut off their debut, they seem to be very much on the Fela road here. Not that that makes it any worse of a song.
Gbeti madjro: For lack of a better term, OPRC’s Stairway.
Mille fois merci: A track from their Congolese-influenced soukous period. Unlike most OPRC tracks, guitarist Bernard “Papillon” Zoudegnon is the real star here.
Assibavi: OPRC at their funky best.


A Distinctly American Pandemic

Well, it looks like we are once again in the opening stages of mass hysteria. Less than a week after the first confirmed case of Ebola in the United States, many already seem to be gripped by an Ebola panic that echoes earlier concerns over avian flu, swine flu, MERS, SARS, etc. None of this is new. Mass hysteria is a well-attested and well-studied set of reactions to perceived threats to health and safety. But the panic we’re seeing over Ebola is not like the others.

Americans, allow me to state this categorically: you will not be exposed to Ebola. You will not contract Ebola. You will certainly not die of Ebola. And if you’re convinced you will, I’m honestly surprised you’ve made it this far in life without wandering into traffic or choking on your own saliva. Although Ebola is spreading rapidly and with little sign of containment in the four West African in which it first appeared, its spread outside this zone is minimal. Months after spreading to Lagos, Nigeria, a city of almost 18 million people in a developing country, the disease has affected no more than a handful of people. It seems the high incidences of disease seem to be occurring in areas which are overwhelmed and unprepared to take on an epidemic of this magnitude, and that isolated cases, although equally deadly, can be treated far more effectively. It is not the disease or its spread that sets the Ebola panic apart from other such panics- it is a question of timing.

This panic has risen within a few weeks of the beginning of an international bombing campaign against ISIS. More broadly, the panic coincides with one of the largest and most sustained periods of global instability since the late 1970s, with unprecedented income inequality throughout the Western world, cooling relations between Russia and the NATO states, and with countless other credible threats to health, stability and safety. Within a few days of the first US case of Ebola being uncovered, fear-mongering websites such as this one are already going as far as suggesting a government/CDC cover-up, and suggesting that flights to and from Ebola-stricken countries be curtailed or stopped entirely (which doesn’t seem like it would be particularly helpful in stopping innocent Africans from dying.) Obviously, the timing of the epidemic itself cannot be anything other than a coincidence, but the timing of the ensuing panic in the US seems suspect. I don’t want to imply this whole thing is a dodge, but it certainly doesn’t seem otherwise justified in any way.

Regardless of whether this panic is engineered or an internal reaction that reveals our unwillingness to face our actual problems, fear-mongering, finger-pointing and stoking distrust will not help things. In fact, if we have people suggesting we should shut off West Africa, throw away the key and continue letting people die, we’ve already gone too far.